vineri, 9 august 2013

UPSTREAM UPPER - INTERMEDIATE - UNIT 4


Rezolvarea exercitiilor de la  Unit 4: MAKE YOURSELF AT HOME  din manualul de limba engleza intitulat UPSTREAM UPPER INTERMEDIATE, Student’s Book,  Editura Express Publishing, Autori Bob Obee si Virginia Evans, Editia 2003

UPSTREAM UPPER INTERMEDIATE
UNIT 4

LEAD-IN

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 61

a).
A    potted plants, a carpet, ornaments, a wooden floor, a basket, a hammock, a table, a vase of flowers, a picture
B   light fittings, a fireplace, French windows, a mirror, a three-piece suite, a coffee table, curtains, ornaments, a vase of flowers, a clock, candlesticks, a lamp, cushions
C   light fittings, a fireplace, a coffee table, a wooden floor, a sofa, a vase of flowers, candle holders, blinds

b).
A: The room in picture A looks very stylish because of the hammock and the wooden walls. It also has character.
B: Yes, you’re right. It looks quite rustic, too as all the furniture is made of natural materials and it is light and airy because of all the tall windows.
A: The room in picture B looks very cosy and lived-in, don’t you think?
B: Yes, it looks very comfortable, but it is rather traditional with all those ornaments and the draped curtains.
A: I agree. It’s not very spacious with all that furniture.



Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 61

a).
I think the room in picture A belongs to an artistic person, or someone who is very creative and imaginative. It is a beautiful room and it looks as though someone enjoys relaxing and daydreaming there.

I think the room in picture B belongs to someone traditional and sensitive, as there are a lot of soft furnishings. This person likes to feel comfortable and protected and to be surrounded by beautiful objects.

The room in picture C probably belongs to someone who is straightforward and who has simple tastes. It is very modern and bare, so I think it belongs to someone very fashionable and well-organised.

b).
1.     C
2.   A
3.   B

c).
1.     newspaper editor
2.   airline pilot
3.   solicitor

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 61


A: I would like to live in an isolated cottage in the countryside because I would love to feel close to nature and live far away from the city and all the buildings.
B: Yes, I think it would be great to enjoy the peace and quiet.

A: I would like to live on a houseboat, as it would be very cramped and I like to have a lot of space. I prefer large, airy rooms with large windows.
B: I agree. I think I would feel sea sick constantly moving the water, too.

A: I think it would be nice to live in a caravan or mobile home because I could travel around and stay in different places. It would be like being on holiday all year round.
B: I wouldn’t like it at all. It would be difficult to make any friends and become a member of a company if you didn’t stay in one place for very long.

A: I don’t think I would like to live underground. I think it would be dark and damp and I’d prefer to live somewhere warm with lots of natural light from the windows.
B: I think it would be very quiet, though.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 61

a).
- Even though you may look for something elsewhere, you will find whatever you need, in the place where you live.
- Your home should contain things that excite, interest and entertain you, as well as food and warmth.
- A house is not a home unless it is filled with love.
A: I agree with the third saying the most. A home should be a place where you feel happy and safe because you are surrounded by people who love you. What about you?
B: To me, the first saying is the one I agree with most.


READING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 62

a).
I think the text is about underground houses.

b).
I think the couple decided to live underground because they wanted to have an unusual home and also because they wanted to help the environment.

c).
A: Living underground would probably reduce building costs, as you would simply dig out earth to make a room instead of buying thousands of bricks to build walls.
B: Hmm. That’s true, but I think it must be a bit cramped living underground and you might not have much contact with your neighbours, too.
A: You’ve got a point there. I don’t think you would have any nice views either because there wouldn’t be any windows. However, I think living underground would cut maintenance bills and heating bills, as the earth surrounding your home would keep it warm and stop draughts from coming in.
B: Yes. It would probably be quite safe, too, as your home would be protected from bad weather.



Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 62

b).
1.     F
2.   G
3.   B
4.   C
5.    A
6.   E
7.    D

c).
1.     the first time, they expected, instead they found
2.   large square holes in the roof, glass pyramids, these will be the main source of light, natural light will spread through the glass
3.   the pyramids, the light coming in through them, reduce the need for artificial light, this will cut our electricity bills
4.   living underground, has many advantages, money is saved on energy and maintenance bills, earth-sheltered homes, free from … noise, low fire risk, What’s more, they
5.    conservationist methods, energy usage, space-saving, avoid living in ‘shoe boxes’
6.   don’t have to be like Timothy’s, they can have attractive glass fronts, a patio is also possible
7.    disadvantages, for instance, also, difficult, deep structures, a lot of excavation


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 9

a).
leisurely = unhurriedly
massive = gigantic
virtually = almost
ample = more than enough
estimate = calculate approximately
inhabitants = residents
methods = practices
costs = expenses

b).
concrete, earth, brick, glass


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 63

a).
·       sensible, valid
·       at least

b).
·       The couple truly believe that living underground has many advantages.
·       This kind of building helps to preserve resources and prevent the destruction of the environment.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 63

Advantages: space-saving, money is saved on energy and maintenance bills; significantly reduced heating bills, free from most forms of noise; low fire risk; reduced need for artificial light; naturally protected from wind and draughts, greater security, building will last 500 years, compatible with new conservationist methods, keeps agricultural land green
Disadvantages: hard to get planning permission, difficult to cope psychologically; building costs can be higher when a lot of excavation is needed

A: To me, living underground has many advantages. Firstly, it saves a lot of space and it doesn’t spoil the landscape. Secondly, it can be much cheaper, as you save money on maintenance and heating bills by installing solar power and glass roofs. They are quiet too, don’t you think so?
B: I agree. They also have a low fire risk, are not draughty and are very secure. Also, most importantly, living underground helps to protect the environment.
A: That’s true. However, there are a few disadvantages to living underground. It can be hard to get planning permission and the building costs may be high if a lot of excavation work has to be done.
B: You are right. Also, some people find it difficult to cope psychologically living underground.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 63

alternative energy sources: wind power, solar energy
recycling: glass, paper, plastic, bath water
insulation: loft insulation, wall insulation, double glazing

A: To save energy in our homes, we can start using alternative sources of energy, such as wind power and solar energy, so that we can get electricity without having to use up any more fossil fuels.
B: Yes, we should also recycle our household waste. Glass, paper, plastic and metal can all be recycled and used to make new products. This means that we will not destroy our planet any further by using up its resources.
A: I agree, we can also use our water to water the plants or wash the car.
B: That’s a good idea. Also, insulating our homes will stop heat and energy escaping. This means that we will use less energy to heat our homes, as the insulation will keep the heat inside our houses.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 64

a).
Suburban areas: bungalow, council house, maisonette, semi-detached house, detached house, villa
Urban areas: flat, bedsit, council house, maisonette, terraced house, hotel suite, studio, penthouse
Rural areas: cottage, bungalow, houseboat, mansion, villa, farmhouse


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 64


b).
A: My house has a small balcony. It would be nice if it had a back garden so that my dog would have somewhere to play and I would have somewhere nice to relax on sunny days. How about you?
B: My house has two bedrooms, but I wish we had a guest room because then I wouldn’t have to sleep on the sofa when people come to stay.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3 / page 64

door: patio, stable, back, heavy, glass, wooden
window: stained glass, doubled-glazed, bay
roof: tiled, flat
garden: back, vegetable, ornamental, herb, rose
staircase: wooden, narrow, open-plan
kitchen: modern, traditional, farmhouse
furniture: bedroom, period, second-hand, wooden


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4 / page 64

a).
A: I don’t think style is that important. After all, we can’t afford somewhere very expensive. I think it is more important to find somewhere cheap and affordable.
B: Yes, that’s true. We need somewhere fully-equipped and fully-furnished, too, as we don’t have enough money to buy household equipment and furniture.
A: That’s a good point. We need somewhere that is easy to maintain, too, as we don’t want to have to do a lot of work around the house or spend a lot of money on repairs.
B: I agree. It should be easily accessible as well, as transport is expensive in England and we need to be able to get to college and to the shops easily.
A: So, do you think we should look for somewhere in the city centre?
B: Yes, I think that’s best.

b).
FF flat = first floor flat
p/w = per week
fully-furn = fully-furnished
mins= minutes
pcm = per calendar month

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 65

a).
pillowcase – dustbin bag – ashtray – CD – greenhouse – bathtub
armchair – remote control – bedside lamp – fireplace
pepper mill – light bulb – washing machine – bookcase

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 65

A: I suppose people who don’t have ashtrays could use a saucer.
B: Yes, that’s a good idea. And people who don’t have CDs could listen to cassettes or the radio.
A: That’s right. I suppose people who don’t have a bathtub could have a shower.
B: Mm. I suppose people who don’t have a bathtub could have a shower.
A: Yes, that’s what we do at home. I suppose people who don’t have armchairs could sit on a sofa.
B: I guess people who don’t have a remote control have to get up and change channels themselves.
A: Yes, and people who don’t have a bedside lamp can use the main light, or a candle.
B: Good idea. People who don’t have a fireplace can use an electric heater.
A: Yes, and people who don’t have a pepper mill can just use the plastic container which the pepper comes in.
B: Yes, that’s what we do at home. People who don’t have light bulbs can use oil lamps or candles.
A: Yes, and people who don’t have a washing machine can go to the launderette or wash their clothes by hand.
B: Yes, I suppose people who don’t have a bookcase can put their books on a shelf.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 65

a).
1.     out
2.   up
3.   out
4.   away
5.    up
6.   out

b).
A: I hate doing the washing up.
B: That’s alright because I don’t mind doing it, but I don’t like clearing out all the junk in the garage.
A: I love doing that every summer. It’s great because we have a garage sale. I don’t like putting things away, though.
B: I like things to be tidy so I hang my clothes up in the wardrobe every day. I hang out the washing every two days, too.
A: That’s great because I hate hanging out the washing.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 65


1.     This is a convention used to make a guest feel relaxed.
2.   home-grown – This is an adjective used to describe sth which has been grown in your own garden.
3.   home-shopping – This is an uncountable noun that describes the method of buying things from home over the phone or by post.
4.   homesick – This is an adjective used to describe the feeling of unhappiness caused by being far away from home.
5.    made my home – This means that London is the place where he/she lives now.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 65

1.     feel at home: comfortable, relaxed
2.   no place like home: nowhere compares to your home
3.   hit home: made an impact on someone
4.   came home: be realised/ understood by sb
5.    home and dry: be successful
6.   home truths: unpleasant facts about yourself
7.    home bird: someone who likes to stay at home

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 10/ page 65

1.                 in
2.               in
3.               in
4.               on
5.                in, of
6.               to
7.                within, of
8.               within

My house is situated in London.
I live in the country.
I would prefer to live in the suburbs.
My friend lives on the outskirts of a small town.
I work in the heart of the city.
My dad works close to the city centre.
I live within easy reach of the beach.
My house is within walking distance of the train station.

LISTENING & SPEAKING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 66

a).

Key words to be underlined:
A. appreciating own space
B. managing chores
C. a way to afford a house
D. adapting, someone else
E. the right flatmate
F. difficult person

I expect one speaker to talk about the advantages of living alone and having somewhere to be by yourself.
I expect one speaker to talk about sharing the household equally.
I expect one speaker to talk about how expensive houses are.
I expect one speaker to talk about the problems involved with living with someone who has a different lifestyle or routine to you.
I expect one speaker to talk about the importance of getting a flatmate who you can really get on with.
I expect one speaker to talk about the problems of sharing a house or flat with someone who doesn’t share your opinions on how to share a living space.


b).
Speaker 1 – B
Speaker 2 – E
Speaker 3 – D
Speaker 4 – F
Speaker 5 – A


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 66

a).

Key words to be underlined:
1.     lonely – solitary ≠ sociable
2.   painted pink – decorated pink
3.   invested – spent ≠ earned
4.   ballroom – dance hall; in use ≠ closed
5.    rich – wealthy ≠poor
6.   built entirely – constructed wholly ≠ partly
7.    according to his political beliefs – in line with his politics

b).
1.     T
2.   F
3.   T
4.   T
5.    F
6.   F
7.    T


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 66

a).
A: I use my television three or four times a week, because I often watch films in the evenings. What about you?
B: Well, I don’t watch much TV, so I probably only use my television twice a week. I use my microwave every day, though.
A: Oh, I only use my microwave once or twice a week, when I want to heat up leftovers, but I use my toaster every morning.
B: I don’t have a toaster, but I use my fridge every day.
A: Me too, and I use my telephone every day, too. I don’t have a blender, though. Do you?
B: No, I don’t. I use my cooker every day, and I use my stereo every day, because I love listening to music.
A: Hmm. I don’t use my cooker very often because I don’t like cooking, but I use my stereo every day, like you. What about your iron? I only use my iron once a week.
B: Oh, I use mine three or four times a week, because I have to iron my shirts for work. I don’t have a dishwasher. Do you?
A: Yes, I do, and I use it four or five times a week. I use my computer every day, though.
B: Me too. I use mine for work and to send emails.
A: Which items do you think are the most important?
B: Well, I think every home should have a cooker, so that they can cook.
A: That’s true. Every home needs a telephone, too, because you need to be able to contact people, especially if there is an emergency.
B: Yes, I agree. What about a computer?
A: Well, they are important, but I think a fridge is more important, as people need to be able to keep food fresh.
B: Yes, you’re right. So, every home should have a cooker, a telephone and a fridge.

b).
1.     A: I think life would be very difficult without modern appliances. It would take a longer to do household tasks like cleaning and cooking without the appliances most of us in our homes.
B: Yes, you’re right. We would all have to work harder and we would be more tired. We would have to go to the supermarket more often, as we would not have fridges and freezers to keep our food fresh, and we would have to wash our clothes by hand.
A: That’s right. We wouldn’t have as much free time, as we would have so much more work to do, so we wouldn’t be as happy.

2.   A: I think that modern technology has improved our lifestyle by making our lives easier and making it possible for us to carry out everyday tasks quickly and easily.
B: Yes, that’s a good point. It also enables us to enjoy ourselves in our own homes instead of having to go out for entertainment, as we have computers, stereos and televisions.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 67

a).
Mild complaints:
·       There seems to be something wrong with…
·       I’d like to bring something to your attention.
·       Can you do something about it?
Strong complaints:
·       I want it repaired as soon as possible.
·       that’s not good enough
·       What are you going to do about it?
·       that’s unacceptable
·       I have a problem that demands your immediate attention

b).
1.     I’d like to bring something to your attention
2.   Can you do something about it
3.   I want it repaired as soon as possible
4.   that’s unacceptable

c).

A: I’d like to bring something to your attention if I may.
B: Sure. What is it?
A: I’ve got a problem in my flat. The lock on the front door is broken.
B: I see.
A: Can you do something about it, please?
B: I’ll see what I can do.
A: OK, thanks.





Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 67

a).
Speaker B is trying to avoid giving a direct answer.

b).
A: When will the repair work be completed?
B: I can’t give you an answer right now.
A: How much will it cost to have double-glazing fitted?
B: I can’t say for certain.
A: Can I move in with you?
B: I’ll have to think about it.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7 / page 67

1.     Do you fancy something to eat?
2.   Have you got/ heard any news yet?
3.   I (do) miss you.
4.   Have you got the time?
5.    Have you been waiting long?
6.   I/ We had better be going (now).
7.    Do you need a (helping) hand?
8.   It’s time for bed.

b).
1.     g
2.   f
3.   h
4.   a
5.    d
6.   c
7.    e
8.   b

READING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 68

1.     I think the moral is not to let yourself be corrupted by money and good fortune.
2.   I think Dickens chose this title to refer to the different characters’ expectations in life and how they differ from reality.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 68

a).

I think that Mr Wemmick’s house is quite small and unusual with features such as a bridge, a pond and a fountain, and contains a collection of curiosities.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 68

1.     C – lines 5-7
2.   B – lines 8-9
3.   A – lines 31-32
4.   D – line 35
5.    B – lines 40-46
6.   C – lines 59-63
7.      B – global meaning

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 69

a).
hoisted = raised
hold out = survive
leafy = with many plants
winding = with many twists and turns
ornamental = decorative
locks = curls
manner = context

b).
Words/ phrases to be underlined: little wooden cottage; large garden; the top of the house had been built and painted like a battery loaded with guns; tiniest, very few windows; door almost too small to get in; bridge, at the back; vegetable garden; leafy shelter; path, winding; ornamental pond, fountain

Mr. Wemmick’s house is a little wooden cottage with a large garden. The top of the house has been painted to look like a battery loaded with guns. There are few windows and a small door. It also has a bridge. There is a vegetable garden at the back and a leafy shelter at the end of a winding path. There is an ornamental pond with a fountain in the middle of it.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 69

1.     You will have the chance to taste a salad made from my vegetables.
2.   I do all my own household jobs and repairs.
3.   to make his house perfect
4.   I do not talk about my home life at work.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 69

To show irony because what Wemmick called the bridge was not really a bridge, but just a plank of wood.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 69

Mr Wemmick is house-proud.
He hoists his bridge with pride. He has worked on the house for many years. He believes his house is perfect.

Pip feels a little uncomfortable.
He says he likes the house when he doesn’t really. He is uncertain about meeting Mr Wemmick’s Aged Parent.

ENGLISH IN USE

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 70

2. f
3. g
4. b
5. a
6. c
7. h
8. e


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 70

a).
The action in the first sentence started in the past and continues to the present, whereas the action in the second sentence happened at a specific time in the past.

b).
Past simple: ago, last year, during last summer’s holiday
Present perfect: already, for months, for ages, yet, since 1996, several times, over the past few weeks, lately, before, recently


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 70

a 1) have been (past event)
   2) was (past event)

b 1) have seen (past event)
   2) was (past event)

c 1) has not called (action which started in the past and continues to the present)
   2) did you leave (past event)

d 1) has gone (action which started in the past and continues to the present)
   2) left (past event)

e 1) have you found (action which started in the past and continues to the present)
   2) have looked (action which started in the past and continues to the present)
   3) have you tried (past event)
   4) looked (past event)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 70

2 A: Have you seen the new film starring Al Pacino?
   B: No, I haven’t./ Yes, I saw it last week.
3 A: Have you ever failed an exam?
   B: No, I haven’t./ Yes, I failed my Maths exam last summer.
4 A: Have you ever been bungee-jumping?
   B: No, I haven’t./ Yes, I went bungee-jumping last year.
5 A: Have you read any good books lately?
   B: No, I haven’t./ Yes, I read The Autograph Man by Zadie Smith last week.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5 / page 70

2. lost weight
3. changed your hairstyle
4. missed dinner
5. he/she gone?

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 70

A: How long have you been using a mobile phone?
B: For about two years, I think.

A: How long have you been living at your current address?
B: For about five years, I think.

A: How long have you known your next-door neighbours?
B: For about four years, I think.

A: How long is it since you redecorated?
B: About two years, I think.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 70

1.     … is not big enough …
2.   … last time we sat  …
3.   … is/ has been a month since …
4.   … have not heard from …
5.    … am still waiting for …
6.   … second time I have been …
7.    … been good at …
8.   … never heard such strange …
9.   … is too small to store …
10.          … have not changed since …


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 71

1.     fashionable
2.   reluctant
3.   imaginative
4.   economical
5.    independent
6.   resistant
7.    absent
8.   creative
9.   historical
10.          wooden
11.courageous
12.           wonderful
13.           horrible
14.           golden
15.           prestigious
16.           careful
17.           possible
18.          durable

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 71

1.     designer
2.   suggestions
3.   spacious
4.   various
5.    wisely
6.   jewellery
7.    Additional
8.   clothes/ clothing
9.   Finally
10.          normally


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 10/ page 71

1.     B
2.   D
3.   B
4.   A
5.    C
6.   B
7.    D
8.   A
9.   D
10.          B
11.B
12.           A
13.           B
14.           C
15.           D


WRITING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 72

Key words to be underlined: exhibition; ‘Ideal Homes’; suggestions on how to make the next one even better; Read advertisement and notes; write a letter to the organizers; giving your opinion; and making your suggestions.

1.     a letter
2.   the organizers of the exhibition
3.   formal. I have never met the organizers of the exhibition.
4.   yes
5.    In the first two paragraphs of the main body, suggestions should be made about including kitchens, bathrooms and a feature on gardens in the next exhibition. In the third paragraph, suggestions should be made about the price and duration of the exhibition.
6.   Beginning:
Dear Sir/ Madam,
I would like to congratulate you on the recent Ideal Homes Exhibition and to tell you how much I enjoyed it. I would also like to make a few suggestions on how to improve it for next year.
Ending:
I hope that my suggestions will be of some help to you. I look forward to attending the exhibition again next year.
Yours faithfully,
Ann Bell

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 72

a).
1.     congratulate you on the success of
2.   put forward
3.   To begin with
4.   truly
5.    despite the fact that
6.   Lastly
7.    In addition
8.   useful

b).
1.     congratulate you on the success of the recent Ideal House Exhibition, the ideas for living rooms were truly impressive, the ideas for protecting the environment were very well presented
2.   Perhaps in future years we could see, One suggestion would be to, I am sure many of your visitors would welcome, I think it would be a good idea to include, I recommend that you, If you were to, if it was
3.   In this way, more people would, then this would
4.   living room ideas – Great! What about kitchens and dining rooms? – the ideas for living rooms were truly impressive, I am sure many of your visitors would welcome inspiring ideas for kitchen and dining rooms.
Bathrooms ideas? One suggestion would be to feature more ideas for bathrooms
Environmentally-friendly ideas, Fantastic, but no mention of gardens – Although the ideas for protecting the environment were very well presented, it would be able to design their outdoor areas in a way which actually benefits the environment Not long enough! Should be at least a week! – I recommend that you increase the duration of the exhibition, if you were to remain open for a minimum of one week.
Too expensive for most people – reduce the cost of the tickets, if it was cheaper.

The writer has included all her notes in the letter.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 73

a).
·       I recommend that you extend the duration of the exhibition…
·       I think it would be a good idea to include a feature about gardens.
·       Perhaps in future years we could see …
·       If it was cheaper …
·       If you were to remain open for a minimum of one week …
·       One suggestion would be to feature more ideas for bathrooms …

b).

2. Think it would be a good idea to ask the principal to give the prizes.
3. Perhaps we could have a party in the school hall.
4. If we bought a new computer, we could work better.
5. If we were to move the desks, we would have more space.
6. Another suggestion would be to sell tickets to students and parents.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 73


1.     d
2.   c
3.   f
4.   a
5.    b
6.   e


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 73

a).
1.     finding
2.   way
3.   would
4.   could
5.    using
6.   were
7.    would
8.   would be able to

b).
Make a suggestion: One way to solve this problem would be to …, This could easily be done by …
Highlight a problem: Another difficulty that was mentioned in the report was …
Mention the expected result: If we were to do this …

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 73

Another difficulty that was mentioned in the report was that student numbers are falling, with the result that the school may have to close. One way to solve this problem would be to advertise the school and what it offers. This could easily be done through the local newspaper, on the radio and through posters. If we were to do this, more people would know about the school and we would be able to attract new students.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 74

1.     Why not go to the party? You never know, you might meet some new friends there.
2.   You could try to learn a foreign language. Then you could get a better job.
3.   If I were you, I’d join a gym. That way, you’ll get fit and feel better.
4.   Why don’t you phone him? Them you could talk about it again.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 74

B  semi-formal – One idea would be to contact the British Embassy in your country. They will be able to provide you with lots of relevant information.
C  formal – I think it would be a good idea to open soup kitchens and shelters for homeless people to go to.
D  formal – I recommend that we resurface the tennis courts.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 74

Key words to be underlined: you are a member of a local youth club; may have to close due to lack of funds; youth leader has asked; to write an article suggesting ways of raising money to keep the youth club open; next newsletter
1.     the youth leader and members of the youth club – semi-formal.
2.   an article
3.   items to be ticked: Increase the monthly charge to members, Ask the local council for help, Approach local companies for sponsorship
4.   In this way, we could raise extra funds to keep the club running.
We might find that they may contribute money to help the club.
That way we could use their donations to help run the club.
5.    I think it would be a good idea to …; I suggest …; Perhaps we could …; If we were to …; One suggestion/ idea would be to … As a result …; This would mean that/ lead to/ result in …; The result of this would be that …; In this way …

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 10/ page 75

a).
Model A is an unsuitable answer for the rubric in Ex.9 because:
·       the title is unsuitable – the title is too long and is not catchy
·       the introduction does not catch the reader’s attention – it is too general and does not refer to the specific problem and it does not address the reader directly
·       the writer does not follow the instructions in the rubric – it does not make clear suggestions or give the expected results for how to raise money, only on how to spend money
·       the style is not appropriate for the target reader – it is formal in some paragraphs and informal in others
·       the writer does not paraphrase the rubric – ‘lack of funds’ and ‘The youth leader has asked the club members to write an article suggesting ways of raising money to keep the club open’ are taken word for word from the rubric
·       the suggestions are unsuitable – they are not about ways of raising money as the rubric asks – one is about saving money and the other is about spending money

b).
1.     No, he hasn’t.
2.   the present financial climate, the amount of rent paid, that the youth leader has asked for club members to write articles, and that the writes enjoys going to the club
3.   The conclusion. It could be improved by replacing ‘I really like going to the club and I know others do as well,’ with ‘All members are invited to attend a fundraising meeting for the club on 4th March.’
4.   I think the target reader will be confused about the problem and will not be impressed by the article as it is poorly thought out and mostly irrelevant.

c).
1.     semi-formal – As most of you know, one thing is for sure, If we could persuade, This would mean that, one obvious solution, it might be our last chance
2.   The introduction introduces the problem and tells the reader that a number of possible solutions will follow. The main body contains three paragraphs each presenting a different suggestion and the expected results. The conclusion refers to future action and offers a personal opinion.
3.   Introduction:
You must all be aware that our youth club is in danger of closing down due to financial difficulties. If we want to save our club, it’s time we all took action and did something to help.
Conclusion:
There will be a meeting on 4th March to discuss all these suggestion. Don’t miss it – the club needs you!
4.   I think it would be a good idea to – One possible solution would be to; we could apply – I recommend applying; one obvious solution is to – another idea would be to; I suggest that each of us pays – If we all paid
5.    If we could … we would – This would mean that …
As a result – If we did …
Then, we would be able to – The result of this would be that


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 11/ page 76

A. Key words to be underlined: letter; from a pen friend; My cousin and I are planning to visit your country; end of July; short holiday; I’d like your advice; five or six days; where to go; what to see and do; letter to your pen friend
1.     a pen friend - informal
2.   suggestions about where to go and what to see and do
3.   go to London, visit Tower of London, Madame Tussaud’s, Big Ben, see a musical in the West End etc
4.   he/she will have a wonderful time, learn about English history and culture.
5.    Why don’t you …?; You could …; If I were you …; I think it would be a good idea to …; Why not …;?
Then you might/ could …; This would mean that …; You might find that …; That way …; You never know, you might …
6.   Beginning:
Dear Susie,
Thanks for your letters. It’s great to hear that you and your cousin are coming to my country. I’m sure you’ll have a wonderful time and I have a few suggestions that I hope you’ll like.
Ending:
I hope these suggestions are helpful. I’m sure that, whatever you do in England, you’ll have a brilliant holiday. Write and tell me all about it!
Yours,
Tara

B. Key words to be underlined: your college; replace its small snack bar with a larger self-service cafeteria; college magazine; invited readers; to suggest; which dishes; other changes; make the place more inviting to students; write an article for the magazine; making your suggestions and giving reasons
1. readers of the college magazine – semi-formal
2. suggestions for which dishes should be included on the menu and other changes that would make the place more inviting to students with reasons
3. include vegetarian and low-fat options for students with special diets; play modern music to make the atmosphere lively and inviting to students; buy some more comfortable seats
4. more students will visit the cafeteria; it will be pleasant place to spend lunch breaks
5. I suggest/ recommend …, I think it would be a good idea …; Perhaps we could …; If we …; One suggestion is to …
As a result …; This would mean that/ lead to/ result in …; The result of this would be that …; In this way…
7.    Beginning:
     As most of you know, the old college snack bar is about to be replaced with a bigger and better self-service cafeteria. Will this mean that we will finally have somewhere comfortable and appealing to eat? I think that if the college follows the suggestions below, the new cafeteria will be a huge success.
     Ending:
     It’s about time we students had an eating place we enjoyed spending time in. Let’s hope the new self-service cafeteria is everything we’ve dreamed of!

C. Key words to be underlined: a one-day trip to London as part of a group of young people; person organizing the trip; Mrs johns; list of interesting places; list and notes; and write a letter; to Mrs Jones; suggesting which place you think you should visit
1. Mrs Jones – formal
2. suggestions about places I think we should visit in London
3. visit the Tower of London and Madame Tussaud’s; go shopping in Harrods
4. we will have a wonderful time, learn about English history and culture, be able to buy some souvenirs, do things that will suit everyone’s taste
5. I suggest/ recommend …; I think it would be a good idea …; Perhaps we could …; If we …; One suggestion is to …
As a result …; This would mean that/ lead to/ result in …; The result of this would be that …; In this way…
6.   Beginning:
Dear Mrs Jones,
Thank you for the list of possible places to visit during our trip to London, which includes a wide range of interesting sights. If I may, I have one or two suggestions as to which places I think would be worth visiting during our trip.
Ending:
Thank you for considering my suggestions. I am sure we will have a very enjoyable time and we are all looking forward to the trip.
Yours sincerely,
Jane Cox

D. Key words to be underlined: student exchange programme; Your teacher; write a composition suggesting activities; foreign exchange student; free time in your neighbourhood.
1. my teacher – semi-formal
2. suggestions for activities which my foreign exchange student can do in their free time in my neighbourhood
3. take a walk in the forest; visit the shops; go to cinema; visit cafes
4. see the beauty of the English countryside; buy souvenirs/ gifts; practice English; sample English cuisine
5. I suggest/ recommend …; I think it would be a good idea …; Perhaps we could …; If we …; One suggestion is to …
As a result …; This would mean that/ lead to/ result in …; The result of this would be that …; In this way…
6.Beginning:
We are all aware that our foreign exchange students will be arriving next month and we are all looking forward to entertaining them. The question is: what are they going to do during their free time in our neighbourhood? I believe that the suggestions below will give us all some good ideas.
Ending:
Taking part in a foreign exchange programme will be a wonderful experience. Let’s make the most of it, and help our exchange students to do the same!

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 12/ page 76

A).
Dear Susie,
Thanks for your letter. It’s great to hear that you and your cousin are coming to my country. I’m sure you’ll have a wonderful time and I have a few suggestions that I hope you’ll like.
There is plenty to se and do in England. I think you should definitely go to London, as it’s the capital city and is full of exciting places to visit.
If I were you, I’d visit the Tower of London. Then, you could learn about English history. Another suggestion is to go to Madame Tussaud’s and see all the wax figures. This would mean that you could have a wonderful time and feel as if you are meeting lots of famous people! Why not visit the East End and see a musical? Then you could learn something about English culture and practice the language.
I hope these suggestions are helpful. I’m sure that, whatever you do in England, you’ll have a brilliant holiday. Write and tell me all about it!
Yours,
Tara


B).
Let’s make it better
As most of you know, the old college snack bar is about to be replaced with a bigger and better self-service cafeteria. Will this mean that we will finally have somewhere comfortable and appealing to eat? I think that if the college follows the suggestions below, the new cafeteria will be a huge success.
First of all, I think that it is important to include vegetarian and low-fat options in the new menu. In this way, it would cater for the larger number of students with special diets.
     In addition, perhaps the college could invest in more comfortable seats for the cafeteria. The seats we have at present are hard and uncomfortable. If new seats are bought, the cafeteria will be a comfortable place to spend lunch breaks.
Another suggestion is to play modern music to make the atmosphere lively and inviting to students. As a result, more students would visit the cafeteria.
     It’s about time we students had an eating place we enjoyed spending time in. Let’s hope the new self-service cafeteria is everything we’ve dreamed of!




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