vineri, 9 august 2013

UPSTREAM UPPER - INTERMEDIATE - UNIT 3

Rezolvarea exercitiilor de la  Unit 3: MAKING A LIVING  din manualul de limba engleza intitulat UPSTREAM UPPER INTERMEDIATE, Student’s Book,  Editura Express Publishing, Autori Bob Obee si Virginia Evans, Editia 2003

UPSTREAM UPPER INTERMEDIATE
UNIT 3

LEAD-IN

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 45

a).
B A stockbroker works in the stock exchange or in an office.
C A medical researcher works in a laboratory.
D A grocer works in a grocery shop.
E A flight attendant works on an aeroplane, in the cabin.
F A chef works in a restaurant.
G A piano teacher works in a school, a college, a conservatory or as a private teacher in his/ her home.
H An estate agent works in an office called an estate agent’s.

b).
The pictures and the title are related because they show different careers people can do in order to earn a living.

c).

A.   I love my job. I get a great feeling of achievement when I help somebody.
B.   So, that’s two thousand shares at 55p a share. Thank you very much, Mr. Brown. I’m sure you will see a huge return on your investment within the next 6 months.
C.   I’m examining some blood samples under the microscope at the moment.
D.  A: Here you are, madam. Will there be anything else?
B: Yes, I’d like a packet of sugar, please.
C: Mummy, I want an orange, please.
E.   The seat belt is fastened like this and unfastened like this.
F.   It’s always very busy in the kitchen, but I love being a chef.
G.  A: Very good. You’re doing very well. Get ready now. I’m going to turn the page.
B: OK.
H. I’ve just sold another house.



Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 45

a).

nurse: works indoors, needs practical and theoretical nursing qualifications, has career prospects – may work up many levels to become a head nurse, poorly-paid, needs the most training, is physically and emotionally demanding, involves flexible hours and shift work.
stockbroker: works indoors, requires qualifications – a degree in Business/ Finance/ Economics to postgraduate level is usual, may offer bonuses, well-paid, may receive a commission or a bonus for the profit made on buying and selling stocks and shares, is mentally demanding and involves long hours
medical researcher: works indoors, needs a science/ medical degree, may need a Master of a PdD, well-paid, is mentally demanding
grocer: works indoors, no formal qualifications required, could have staff discount on goods in the shop
flight attendant: works indoors, requires qualifications in English, Maths and languages, has career prospects – may work their way up to rank of purser, needs training in first-aid and safety procedures, has perks and bonuses – gets cheap flights, is physically demanding due to long and unsociable hours, but the hours are also flexible
chef: works indoors, requires formal training and qualifications, may work up to head chef, can be well-paid, perks – free meals, is physically demanding due to long hours, and can involve shift work
piano teacher: works indoors, must have teaching qualifications and a music degree, well-paid, can have flexible hours
estate agent: works indoors – in an office and outdoors – showing people around houses in order to sell them, must take to professional examinations, usually has flexible hours, could be promoted to a management position, may receive a commission for every sale made or a bonus for selling a house.

b).

B: I believe that being a nurse and helping people must be rewarding, but stressful too, coping with ill and injured people every day. What do you think?
A: I quite agree with you. Also, I think it must be a secure job and they could progress to being a senior nurse or a ward manager. It’s certainly not a dead-end job.

A: I think that being a stockbroker must be really stressful, don’t you agree?
B: Perhaps you’re right, but on the other hand, they enjoy a lot of perks and bonuses as well. It’s certainly financially rewarding!

A: To me a grocer’s job is a dead-end job. What’s your opinion?
B: That’s not quite the way I see it. An employee could work their way up to a management position if they were ambitious.

A: I think a flight attendant’s job must be repetitive because they follow a fixed routine every flight: giving safety instructions, serving drinks and meals. Don’t you agree?
B: I couldn’t agree more. It must be quite boring.

B: I believe a chef’s work is creative. Thinking up new dishes needs imagination. What’s your opinion?
A: I see what you mean, but not all chefs invent new dishes. Some of them cook the same thing over and over again, and that could be repetitive.

B: To my mind a piano teacher’s job is creative and rewarding. What’s your opinion?
A: I partly agree, but they must give the same lessons over and over again, and that could be repetitive.

A: In my opinion as estate agent’s job is quite secure. After all, people will always want to buy and sell houses, won’t they?
B: That’s true. To me it’s quite stressful though,, because they have to co-ordinate the needs of the house-buyers and the house-sellers, and people may want different things!

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 45

a).

Speaker A: a flight attendant (travel, cheaper air tickets, hours changing, never in one place very long)
Speaker B: a nurse (kind, patient, caring, careful, helping people … need)
Speaker C: a chef (food, creative, hygiene, what I make, hours antisocial)

b).

I deal with people and money. I need to be patient and careful. Sometimes I give customers advice. My salary is quite good. I like my job because it is challenging and I like working with people.
Answer: bank clerk

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 45

“I’d rather be poor and happy than rich and unhappy.”
A: Well, I couldn’t agree more. There’s no point in being a millionaire if there’s no joy in your life, is there? Material possessions are not more important than simple things, like feeling happy.
B: That’s not quite the way I see it actually. To my mind being very rich solves more problems than it causes. I believe my life would be more comfortable if I were a millionaire.

“Whatever job you have, you should do it well.”
A: That’s true. Your attitude is the most important thing. If you work hard and try to do a good job, that’s what counts, not the type of work you do. After all, isn’t every job important in its own way?
B: I don’t agree at all. Of course it matters what kind of job you do! Some types of work are more important to society than others. I believe it’s what you do, and not how you do it that is important.

READING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 46

a).

… they know my academic strengths and weaknesses, and they could help me choose a career which would suit my abilities.

c).

I think it’s easier to get a good job nowadays. In my parents’ day not so many people went on to higher education. Today, a good education is available to a greater number of people. If people have qualifications they have a better chance of getting a good job.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 46

a).

I think the article is going to be about young people’s career choices today.

b).

Main ideas:
Para 1: Why do parents make terrible careers advisors?
Para 2: Today’s 14 and 15-year olds – are optimistic about their prospects but their career ideas are rather vague (optimistic = positive – vague = unclear)
Para 3: A job for life is not in their vocabulary; neither is a dead-end but secure job (not in their vocabulary = what (they) don’t want)
Para 4: In the past – guidance counselors – their faith in rigid career paths (in the past = the old attitude)
Para 5: But the world has changed. The future belongs to quick-thinking people (the future = tomorrow’s)
Para 6: she has to have the training and guidance to help her – no one is telling them how to turn the new rules of the employment game to their advantage (guidance = support)
Para 7: A good first step would be to change the way in which schools prepare young people for adult life. (change = rethinking, school prepare = we teach them)
Para 8: up-to-date information on new jobs and qualifications can help guidance counselors to help their students (guidance counselors = careers advisor)
Para 9: the best thing is to forget all the advice your parents gave you and step into your teenager’s shoes (step into your teenager’s shoes = see the world through their eyes)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 47

a).

1.     B
2.   H
3.   E
4.   G
5.    A
6.   F
7.    C

B).

Why can’t parents give good careers advice?
Young people have different ideas about work from their parents.
They want to do something that they will enjoy.
Attitudes were different in the past.
Modern career paths are changeable.
Different skills are needed to succeed in today’s job market.
Schools need to help young people to develop a wider range of skills.
Careers advisors should offer positive encouragement and accurate information to today’s job seekers.
Parents need to see things from their child’s point of view.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 47

a).

prospects: chances of being successful
determined: decided upon sth
rigid: unchangeable, fixed
well-founded: justified
dependable: reliable
resourceful: able to use initiative
pitfalls: things that may cause problems
redundancy: loss of one’s job due to financial reasons
freelancing: being self-employed, working for different employers
obsessed: thinking about something constantly
guidance counselors: careers advisors
optimism: positive outlook
resilient: strong, able to recover easily from setbacks

b).

Positive: practical, ambitious, determined, diligent, dependable, quick-thinking, resourceful, independent, resilient
Negative: obsessed, unrealistic

c).

pay the bills (lines 13-14)
follow your dreams (line 60)
change your plans (line 21)
take the initiative (line 27)
get ahead (line 23)
step into sb’s shoes (line 57)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 47

1.     is not something they think or talk about
2.   a job that leads nowhere and has no prospects
3.   shocked and appalled
4.   does not offer benefits
5.    earn a decent living
6.   can act as a remedy
7.    put yourself in their position


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 47

The writer addresses parents of teenagers. The words and phrases which determine this are:
-        ‘Why do parents make terrible careers advisers?’ (in relation to the previous four lines) (lines 4-5)
-        ‘we as parents’ (line 55)
-        ‘Step into your teenager’s shoes!’ (line 57)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 47

A: Have you decided what you are going to do when you leave school, Jane?
B: Yes, I want to be a singer.
A: No, seriously.
B: I am serious. I want to sing in nightclubs.
C: You are not being very practical. You need to think about getting a proper job with a steady wage.
B: Your father’s right. Singing is not a very secure job, is it?
A: Maybe not, but it’s what I want to do.
C: You should think about getting an office job with a pension so you will have a regular income and a pension at the end of it.
A: I want to have a job where I can travel and meet lots of people. I don’t want to be stuck in a boring old office all my life!
B: Why don’t you give it a try? You can sing at the weekend.
A: No, I’ve made up my mind. I want to earn my living doing something I love, not something boring just because there’s a pay packet every week.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 48

B
A: I think a door-to-door salesperson must be persuasive in order to encourage people to buy things from him. What do you think?
B: I agree. I think they also need to be persistent, because they must face rejection a lot. It would be good for the customers if the salesperson were honest too!

C
A: I think a tour guide has to be punctual and calm because he is responsible for seeing that a tour programme runs smoothly.
B: I see what you mean. What’s more, they should be patient and caring because they are dealing with the public.

D
A: I believe that a firefighter needs to be courageous, as he needs to enter burning buildings to put out fires and save people from the flames.
B: I totally agree. They should be physically strong too, as they may need to carry out injured people. I also believe they need to be emotionally strong, to cope in disasters and emergencies.

E
A: To me, an interpreter has to be intelligent and alert because what they are interpreting may be of great importance, and it needs to be accurate.
B: I see what you mean. I would say it’s important for them to be quick-thinking too, as sometimes they need to interpret at great speed.

F
A: I think an executive has to be decisive because she will need to make important company decisions. What’s your opinion?
B: I quite agree with you. I think they also need to be intelligent and hardworking because it is a demanding job.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 48

a).
shop assistant, waitress/ waiter, babysitter, hotel maid, pizza delivery boy, cleaner, kitchen porter, camp leader etc.

b).

A: You’d be great as a babysitter because you really love children.
B: You might be right actually. I’ll ask around and see if anyone needs my services.

A: This would be ideal for you, a part-time sales assistant in your favourite shop!
B: No, that’s not for me. I love shopping, but I don’t think I could cope with standing up all day serving customers!

A: You’d make a great bartender. You’re so sociable.
B: Yes, that’s certainly a possibility. I’ll look into it.

B: I can just imagine you as a waiter in a good restaurant. You’re very charming. Just think of all the tips you’d make!
A: You surprise me. It’s not my kind of things at all! I’d rather work in a music shop.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 48

a).
Speaker 1 C (lighthouse keeper)
Speaker 2 E (interpreter)
Speaker 3 A (primary school teacher)
Speaker 4 F (air-hostess)
Speaker 5 B (social worker)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 48

a).
Countable: wage, salary, pension
Uncountable: pay, savings, interest, cash, pocket money

b).
1. interest
2. pocket money
3. wage
4. pay
5. cash
6. salary
7. pension
8. savings

c).
Most of my salary goes into the savings.
I pay a lot of interest on my credit card.
I am saving up my pocket-money for my holidays.
I can’t wait to get my first pay packet.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 49

-        department store: stockroom assistant
A stockroom assistant could be part-time or full-time. They should have organizational skills to arrange the stock, and mathematical skills to add and subtract the incoming and outgoing stock.

-         school: headteacher, teacher
A headteacher – This is a full-time position requiring managerial and organizational skills to administer the school and its staff. It also requires mathematical skills to organize the school budget and communication skills in order to converse with teachers, parents and students.
A teacher – Teaching can be a full- or part-time job. The skills required are: managerial to keep order in the classroom, organizational to create a syllabus for the students to study, and communication to be able to pass on knowledge to his/ her students and discuss matters with parents, and other teachers.

-         cruise ship – ship’s doctor, entertainment manager
A ship’s doctor: This is a full-time job. Many special skills are needed including communication and language skills in order to converse with patients, and organizational skills to manage his/ her practice efficiently.
An entertainment manager – This is likely to be a full-time job. Managerial and organizational skills are essential for the coordination of the entertainment programme. Communication skills are also very important, as the manager deals with entertainers and the ship’s passengers.
-         hospital: nurse, doctor
A nurse - This job is usually full-time and requires very good communication skills. A nurse is in such close contact with his/her patients that he/ she must be able to converse well. Organizational skills are also necessary as the nurse’s duties must be performed in an organized manner.
A hospital doctor works full-time and needs excellent communication skills in order to attend to patients and deal with the nursing staff. Mathematical skills are also required to calculate the correct dosage for medicine.

-         restaurant: chef, waiter/ waitress
A chef is a full-time position in most cases. The job calls for good organizational skills to manage the food preparation in the kitchen well, communication skills to deal with the kitchen staff, waiters and restaurant manager, and mathematical skills to work out how much food to order for the dishes that he/ she will prepare.
A waiter/ waitress – This job can be full or part-time. Communication skills are very important as the waiter/ waitress takes orders from customers.

-         Supermarket: checkout assistant, store manager
A checkout assistant – This job could be full- or part-time. Special skills are not really required as the cash register will calculate the total cost of people’s shopping and how much change is to be given. Good communication skills are an advantage as the job involves close contact with the public.
A store manager – This is a full-time position which demands a combination of various skills. These include: managerial and organizational skills in order to run the supermarket efficiently, communication skills to handle both the supermarket staff and customers well, mathematical skills to calculate the profits and expenditure and telephone skills to communicate with the head office and suppliers.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 49

1.     profession
2.   resign
3.   employer
4.   crew
5.    candidates
6.   vacancy
7.    perks

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 49

1.     d
2.   g
3.   e
4.   i
5.    h
6.   b
7.    a
8.   j
9.   c
10.    f

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 49

1.     have spent/ used it all
2.   saving
3.   obtain
4.   reducing, using up
5.    pay living expenses
6.   reduce

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 49

2. from
3. for
4. in
5. with
6. in/which
7. by/which
8. in
9. in
10. in
11. for
12. for
13. at
14. at
15. in

2. Mrs Green is sixty years old and will retire from her job next month.
3. Harry encouraged his friend to apply for the position because it was such a good opportunity.
4. When she finishes her law degree, she will specialize in company law.
5. I enjoy my job because I deal with the public, and this brings me satisfaction.
6. I have experience in marketing, but I prefer sales. I have lots of experience with children.
7. Everyone was impressed by the new office assistant because he was so diligent. I was very I impressed with the new staff room.
8. He is ambitious and very interested in promotion.
9. She is highly experienced in all kinds of accounting.
10. George is qualified in computing. He is a qualified computer engineer.
11. She was very suitable for the job.
12. The new manager will be responsible for sales and marketing.
13. The chef is skilled at creating all kinds of seafood dishes.
14. Do you think I would be good at dealing with difficult customers?
15. Please fill in an application form and hand it to the secretary.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 50

a).
1.     Key words: place of works; owner; secretary; colleague
The conversation takes places in a workplace. The speakers are a man and a woman.
2.   Key words: news report; British employees; variety; reluctant to have children; don’t like fixed schedules
It could be a TV or radio news report. There is probably one speaker. The language will be semi-formal/ formal. It seems to be about the likes and dislikes of British employees.
3.   Key words: advertisement; radio; purpose; young people; learn music; musicians; holiday; recruit; young musicians
It’s a radio advertisement. There could be one or more speakers; the language is probably quite informal and persuasive. It’s something about music.
4.   Key words: live radio broadcast; New Year; Chelsea FC; won; match; London; mayor.
It’s not pre-recorded. We may hear a reporter and a crowd of people. Probably some kind of announcement will be made about a special occasion.
5.    Key words: woman; mobile phone; feel; confused; upset; stressed; angry; disappointed; sad.
The speaker is a woman. We will hear one side of the telephone conversation. We can guess she is speaking in an emotional way.
6.   Key words: speech; where; meeting; ceremony; company party.
The speaker will be one person. There may be some background noise like applause or the murmur of conversation.
7.    Key words: job interview; girl’s; education; high school; degree; post-graduate degree
There will probably be two people – the candidate and the interviewee. The interviewer is a girl. This is a formal situation. We will hear specific information about the girl’s education.
8.   Key words: two neighbours; think of working from home; irritating; less social; advantages
There are two speakers and one is a woman, they know each other quite well so the language may be informal. They are going to talk about working from home.

b).
1.     A
2.   C
3.   C
4.   A
5.    B
6.   B
7.    B
8.   C

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 50

a).
1.     workplace, employment market – nowadays, lots of competition
2.   company, location – if you can, pay a visit, the day before
3.   confidence – researching the prospective employer
4.   initiative, free time, information – make a list of things you may be asked or wish to ask
5.    write down – your questions
6.   bad impression – not being punctual
7.    public transport – keep in mind … may be late
8.   nice, polite, friendly – when you enter the company building
9.   relax – interviewees normally, when the interview is over
10.                wages, pay, salary – avoid asking the interviewer questions

b).

1.     job market
2.   company or organisation
3.   self-confidence
4.   information
5.    write down
6.   bad first impression
7.    buses or trains
8.   polite and courteous
9.   ask questions
10.                private life

c).

-         Answer questions calmly
-         Dress appropriately
-         Be early
-         Don’t chew gum
-         Give a firm handshake to each interviewer
-         Sit comfortably
-         Use positive words, e.g. when instead of it
-         Don’t dominate the interview
-         Be attentive

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 51

a).
See Tapescript for Exercise 4 p.51 in the Student’s Book.

b).
See Tapescript for Exercise 4 p.51 in the Student’s Book.

c).
See Tapescript for Exercise 4 p.51 in the Student’s Book.

d).
See Tapescript for Exercise 4 p.51 in the Student’s Book.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 51

a).

Phrases to be underlined: ‘I don’t really understand why…’; ‘Do you really expect me to believe that?’
B is an employee and A is the employer/ manager.
The problem seems to be that person B is repeatedly late for work and person A is angry about his behaviour.

b).
A: Can you tell me why you keep using my computer? You have one of your own, don’t you?
B: Well, you see, there’s a problem with mine, and until it’s repaired I can’t use it.

B: Can you explain why the report I gave you hasn’t been finished on time? It’s two weeks late!
A: To be honest, there were so many errors in it that I thought it better to re-write the whole thing.

A: I can’t concentrate today. Why is it that your mobile phone keeps ringing all the time?
B: Well you see, I’m selling a motorbike and people have been calling all day because they are interested in buying it.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 51

A: I really don’t know what to do about my job. My salary isn’t very high and I think I deserve to be paid more.
B: I suggest you speak to your employer about it. The worst she can do is say ‘no’!

B: I’m having a problem deciding what to do. I really like my job, but I have to start work very early in the morning and I’m getting fed up with it.
A: Here’s what I’d do. I’d go to my manager and ask if I could change my hours or work mornings on a rota system. Do you think that might work?

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7 / page 51

b
A: Could you lend me 10 pounds until next week?
B: Sorry, I’m broke.

c
A: I’d like to pay for these shoes by credit card.
B: Sorry, we don’t accept credit cards.

d
A: Can I pay with a 50 pounds note?
B: Have you nothing smaller?


READING: CULTURE CLIP

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1 / page 52

a).
2
A: That looks like a strange job! He must be a town crier.
B: Yes, he makes public announcements at events and ceremonies in a town.

3
A: It looks as if he’s high up in the air so he must be steeplejack.
B: He cleans or repairs high buildings, church steeples, for example.

4
B: I think the man in picture 4 must be a chimney sweep judging by that brush and his black clothes.
A: Yes, I think he climbs up the inside of chimneys to clean them.

5
A: I think he’s a butler and he works in a private house for a rich employer. What do you think?
B: Yes. Butlers manage the whole house for their employer. They’re responsible for everything – food, drinks, bills, cleaning, gardening – even the other staff if there are any. It’s quite a difficult job really.

6
A: He’s a milkman, but I don’t think that there are many milkmen left nowadays.
B: No, it’s a pity because they used to deliver dairy products to your door, which was very convenient.

b).
I think the text is about the unusual and traditional British jobs in the pictures. It might tell us about the survival of these jobs in the modern world.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 52

a).
During the week I’m in jeans and a shirt – At weekends -  I put on a suit. (lines 7-10)
b).
1,2 wear special clothes – have a special/ unique costume/ uniform
3 works at night – doesn’t work in the day
4 undergo formal training – completed a special training course
5, 6 like the sociable part – like meeting people
7 doing job since child – ever since he was a young boy
8 rarely has contact with people – doesn’t meet/ see many people
9, 10 travel – get to go to lots of different places
11, 12 live and work same place – work from home
13, 14 have to be fit – need to be in good shape

c).
1.     C (line 35) – in any order
2.   F (lines 83-84) – in any order
3.   D (line 52)
4.   B (line 16-17)
5.    E (lines 73-74) – in any order
6.   F (lines 87-88) – in any order
7.    E (line 64)
8.   D (line 61)
9.   C (line 38) – in any order
10.    B (line 23) – in any order
11.F (lines 85-87) – in any order
12.     A (lines 5-10) – in any order
13.     D (line 55) – in any order
14.     B (line 23) – in any order


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 53

a.    I cannot choose when I will take my holiday leave. My employer informs me when I can take it, in order to fit in with his plans.
b.   To be a steeplejack you should not be afraid of heights. You have to feel comfortable and confident about working on tall buildings.
c.    The job of town crier is very old, traditional and liked by a lot of people. By continuing this profession, it is not forgotten or lost.
d.   Picking up and carrying heavy crates of milk hurts my hands and makes the skin on them rough and dry.
e.    A sweep visits people’s homes and they usually offer him a cup of tea and like to chat. Conversation with his customers is an important aspect of his job.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 53

self-employed: works for himself
train: learn the skills required for the job
extended: long
grace: make more attractive
ceremonial: related to a ceremony
promotional: related to advertising and sales
booming: very loud
boast: something he is proud about
complete his round: finish delivering in his area
crates: plastic containers for bottles
strains: causes pain and discomfort through overwork
go against nature: do something unnatural
isolated: lonely, alone
faulty: malfunctioning, not working properly
obstructions: blockages
ventilation: circulation of air
on your guard: be wary, alert
bomb scares: bomb threats

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 53

Butler
Shaun Harrison mentions that he needs to be polite, respectful and well-organised. I strongly agree that these are necessary qualities for a butler.

Steeplejack
Mark Thompson says that in order to be a steeplejack a person should have a head for heights, be strong and quite fearless. I agree, and I would add that a steeplejack also needs to be careful and cautious, because it is dangerous to work at such a great height.

Town Crier
Peter Moore states that he has a booming voice and this is certainly a necessary quality for a town crier. Furthermore, I believe that a town crier needs to be an extrovert and sociable.

Milkman
Rick Booth says that a milkman needs to be in good shape to do his job. I agree because it’s physical work and it involves a lot of heavy lifting.

Chimney Sweep
Ted Cox mentions that in order to be a good sweep, you have to be a good listener. I quite agree with this because he works in people’s homes and there is a social aspect to his job. I would also say that you need to be careful to do the job properly.

Yeoman of the Guard/ Beefeater
Miles Reed says that Beefeaters have to be on their guard at all times for bomb scares and robbery attempts, and I strongly agree. He also mentions that he enjoys meeting people from all over the world, so being sociable is also important.



Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 53

A: I think some of these jobs are in danger of disappearing because times have changed.
B: That’s true. In the modern world there isn’t really any necessity for the role of town crier in my opinion, don’t you think so?
A: I agree. However, I believe that jobs like the steeplejack and butler are still relevant because a need exists for them.

A: In my country a traditional job which is in danger of disappearing is that of a grocer in a small grocery shop. This is because big supermarket chains offer customers products at a much cheaper price.
B: I agree. As small grocery shops can’t afford competitive prices, people prefer to do their shopping in supermarkets.


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 53

A: So, Mr. Harrison. What do you do for a living?
B: I’m a butler.
A: What skills are required to be a butler?
B: You have to be polite, respectful and well-organised.
A: What exactly does your job involve?
B: I do everything from paying the bills to picking up the children, organizing parties and getting the washing machine repaired.
A: Who do you work for?
B: I work for a family in Oxfordshire.
A: Do you wear a uniform?
B: Not really. During the week I’m in jeans and a shirt, then at weekends, when the family arrives, I put on a suit.
A: Do you get much time off?
B: I get four weeks’ holiday a year and I have to take it when it suits my employer. 


ENGLISH IN USE

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 54

1.     to have
2.   watching
3.   moving
4.   ringing
5.    to fire
6.   to work
7.    to have
8.   spending
9.   to apply
10.    making

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2/ page 54

1.
a. to work – expresses a future desire
b. working – enjoy
2.
a. to call – refers to an action that needed to be done
b. calling – recall a past action
3.
a. staying up – involves
b. to stay up – intend
4.
a. buying – a past habit that has stopped
b. to buy – shows purpose
5.
a. to send – attempt
b. sending – do sth as an experiment

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 54

1.     We can’t afford to eat there.
2.   They couldn’t help laughing when she tripped over the cable.
3.   He avoids buying expensive clothes.
4.   I didn’t remember to bring my wallet.
5.    We are looking forward to seeing you next month.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 54

-        You can choose to work at home on this project if you wish.
-        Sarah offered to help me as I had a mountain of work to do.
-        My manager hates people using their mobile phones in the office.
-        I would prefer to work in a non-smoking office.
-        I can’t stand listening to office gossip.
-        Try to read all the reports tonight so that we can discuss them tomorrow morning.
-        Stop wasting time and get on with your work.
-        I am very pleased to accept your job offer.
-        Was it difficult to learn how to use the computer?

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5/ page 54

1.     The present form in direct speech changes to the past form in reported speech. (e.g. doesn’t – didn’t, can – could)
For orders, the imperative changes to an infinitive in reported speech. (switch – told me to switch)
2.   A change of speaker means a change of pronoun in order to keep the meaning clear (e.g. assuming Larry was talking to me, and now I am reporting it, “Can you help me?” – Larry asked if I could help him.)]
3.   asked (if), said (that), told (me to)
4.   Word order changes in reported questions (e.g. Can you- if you could)
Punctuation changes in reported questions – the question mark is not used. Also quotation marks are not used in reported speech.
Certain words like demonstratives and time words change in reported speech. (e.g. This – it)

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 54

1.     Sheila admitted that she had made the mistake.
2.   Sheila offered to help Steve.
3.   Sheila explained to Steve how the machine worked.
4.   Sheila invited Steve to go with them.
5.    Sheila threatened to leave if things did not improve.
6.   Sheila complained to Steve that she really didn’t like it.
7.    Sheila asked Steve what the new boss was like.
8.   Sheila insisted that Steve worked on Saturdays.
9.   Sheila reminded Steve to take his briefcase.
10.    Sheila suggested to Steve that he used that computer.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 54

A: What are you doing?
B: Jane offered to lend me her computer because mine isn’t working properly.
A: But that’s not Jane’s computer, it’s mine.
B: Oh sorry! Paul told me that this was Jane’s desk.

A: The manager insisted that I stay behind after work today to look for the missing file.
B: There must be some mistake. I informed him that I found the file earlier.
A: No one told me. That’s a relief! By the way, MR. Harris insisted that you call him. Etc.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 54

1.     … told Bob not to be… (reported speech)
2.   .. used his computer without asking … (-ing form after preposition)
3.   … no point in listening to …(phrase used with –ing form)
4.   … if he knew what time… (reported speech)
5.    … did not succeed in getting … (-ing form)
6.   … finished his speech by showing … (-ing form)
7.    … why she had not tried … (reported speech)
8.   … accused Liz of stealing her … (reporting verb followed by –ing form)
9.   … offered to help me file … (reported speech)
10.                      … apologised for canceling… (reported speech)


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 55

1.     dissatisfied
2.   inconvenient
3.   impersonal
4.   illegal
5.    disagreeable
6.   indirect
7.    immature
8.   impolite
9.   dishonest
10.    illogical
11.irregular
12.     irrelevant
13.     unsure
14.     unreliable


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 10 / page 55

1.     someone
2.   whenever
3.   yourself
4.   However
5.    such
6.   much
7.    at
8.   least
9.   without
10.    also
11.which/that
12.     having
13.     them
14.     it
15.     should


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 11/ page 55

1.     back (the adverb ‘back’ is not used with ‘remember’)
2.   ok
3.   of (the verb ‘waste’ is not followed by ‘of’, though the noun ‘waste’ can be as in ‘a waste of time’)
4.   us ( the pronoun ‘us’ is incorrect without the preposition ‘to’)
5.    ok
6.   to (we do not need the preposition ‘to’ in this sentence – send sth to sb BUT send sb sth)
7.    in (‘spend a fortune’ is a fixed phrase that does not need a second preposition)
8.   ok
9.   ok
10.                      from (the verb ‘avoid’ is not used with the preposition ‘from’)
11.for (the verb ‘expert’ is not used with the preposition ‘for’)
12.                       them (the pronoun ‘them’ is incorrect without the preposition ‘to’)
13.                       to (the verb ‘read’ does not need a preposition in this sentence)
14.                       ok
15.                       of (the verb ‘manage’ is not followed by ‘of’ though the noun ‘management’ can be)


WRITING

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 1/ page 56

Key words to be underlined: college; you study; changes; Dean; student representative; report; conditions in the classrooms; suggest ways; improved for students and staff

  1. the Dean of the college
  2. the conditions of the classrooms and how they could be improved
  3. Headlines to be ticked: Purpose; Classroom Conditions; Suggested Improvements; Conclusion

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 2 / page 56

a).
1.     Purpose
2.   Classroom Conditions
3.   Suggested Improvements
4.   Conclusion

b).
1.     The first section is the introduction and it states the purpose of the report. The second section outlines the current conditions of the classrooms and the problems. The third section contains the suggestions on how to improve the conditions and the expected results. The final section is the conclusion which summarises the report.
2.   I would strongly suggest, special care needs to be taken, if the college … it would mean that.

c).
not much desk space – keep the number of students to below ten – classrooms tend to be dark –special care needs to be taken as far as lighting is concerned – difficult to see the video screen – invest in a larger television

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 3/ page 57

Although – Despite the fact that (make concession)
Firstly – To start with (list points)
Secondly – In addition (list points)
Finally – Last (list points)
To begin with – In the first place (list points)
In this way – By doing this (express effect)
Also – What is more (list points)
Last – Finally (list points)
To sum up – In conclusion (conclude)
  
Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 4/ page 57

1.     To start with, despite the fact that
2.   By doing this, Furthermore
3.   I recommend, in order to
4.   it would be a good idea to, Secondly
5.    especially, By doing this we would
6.   especially, Furthermore

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 5 / page 57

1.     One of the main problems with learning English is that it is difficult to get enough listening and speaking practice.
2.   Secondly, there are a lot of difficult things to learn, especially grammar.
3.   One solution would be to watch TV and listen to the radio.
4.   This would mean that we would be able to hear the way the language is spoken.
5.    As a result, we would soon be able to develop a more thorough knowledge of the language.
6.   Furthermore, if we also studied regularly, we would slowly build on this knowledge.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 6/ page 57

Kew words to be underlined: school; you work as a teacher; brochure; distributed to the public; headmaster; write a report; suggesting aspects of life at the school; photographs.
1.     the headmaster
2.   academic subjects, sports, school history, exam results, facilities, field trips, classrooms, staff.
3.   Firstly, Secondly, In particular, I recommend, It would be a good idea to, Also, In addition
4.   Conclusion, Exam Successes, Purpose, School Activities, Classrooms, Other: Staff, Facilities, Sports


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 7/ page 58

Model A is inappropriate because it is set out like a letter and not like a report. The style is informal and personal rather than formal and impersonal. Also, it does not make any suggestions or recommendations for what aspects of life at school or photographs should be represented in the brochure.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 8/ page 58

Purpose – contains a clear outline of the purpose of the report
Classrooms – suggests including information and photographs of the classrooms
School Activities – suggests including information about school projects and photographs of the video room
Exam Successes – suggests including the results from recent exams and photos of last year’s prize-giving ceremony
Conclusion – offers writer’s personal opinion

Firstly – To begin with
One suggestion would be – it would be a good idea
This would give a good impression – It this way, we could
Secondly – In addition
I think – In my opinion
It would be useful – it would be a good idea
In this way – By doing this
Finally – Last
We could – I would suggest
To sum up – In conclusion
I believe – I feel that
As a result – This would mean that

Words/ Phrases to be highlighted: The purpose of this report is to make recommendations regarding which aspects of life at the school should be represented in the proposed brochure (long complex sentence with complicated grammatical structures including use of the passive); in order to show how successful (complex structure); we could illustrate this with (advanced vocabulary); we will be able to create a very attractive and informative brochure (advanced vocabulary).

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 9/ page 59

1.     the manager of personnel officer at Taylor and Partners
2.   my reason for writing, the position I am applying for and where I saw it advertised
3.   three – 1: what course I am studying, 2: what work experience I have, my academic qualifications, 3: my personality
4.   reasons:
A – too informal – uses a short form ‘I’d’ and a colloquialism ‘drop you a line’
B – Does not mention what the job is or where it was advertised
C – uses short forms ‘I’m’, ‘it’ll’ and informal language ‘thanks for giving me the chance’, ‘great fun’ and does not use an appropriate salutation ‘Yours’ instead of “Yours faithfully’ and doesn’t sign his full name ‘Jim’ instead of ‘James’
D – uses a short form ‘I’m’ and informal language ‘Call me if you like’


Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 10/ page 59

a).
1. the Student News
2. I am a sixteen-year-old high school student
3. When I leave school, I plan to study Business Administration.
4. I have often helped out in the family business, where I have been responsible for duties such as filing and taking telephone messages.
5. I would describe myself as industrious and motivated. I am a sociable person.
6. I look forward to hearing from you.

b).
I am writing in reference to the summer position in your London branch as advertised in the Student News yesterday. I would very much like to be considered for this vacancy.
I would be pleased to attend an interview at your convenience to discuss my suitability for the position. Thank you for your consideration.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 11/ page 59

a).                 
Informal style – Formal style:
think about – consider
job – vacancy
chance – opportunity
I haven’t got any – I have no
done things like – been responsible for duties such as
answering the phone – taking telephone messages
as for what I’m really like – as far as my personality is concerned
can – I am capable
if you want – if you wish
free – available
can’t wait to hear – look forward to hearing

b).
I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Student News dated 12th May.
Thank you for taking the time to consider my application.
I am writing with regard to broaden my work experience.
I have no experience of working in an office, but I have worked as a part-time sales assistant in a department store.
I have been responsible for duties such as customer service and stock taking.
As far as my personality is concerned, I am hardworking and patient.
I am capable of working both as a member of a team and independently.
If you wish, I can provide a reference from my previous employer.
I am available for an interview at any time.
I look forward to your reply.

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 12/ page 60

a).
·       I write this letter – wrong tense – I am writing
·       Always wanted doing – gerund/infinitive mistake – I have always wanted to do
·       I was little boy – missing word – I was a little boy
·       Will work at an office – wrong preposition – will work in an office
·       It sounds really cool and I’m sure that you are a great boss! – language too informal – it sounds very interesting and I am sure that I would enjoy working there very much
·       And another reason – unnecessary word – another reason
·       Want this job it is because when I lave school – punctuation problem – want this job. It is because when I leave school
·       How much is the salary – wrong word order – how much the salary is
·       Yours truly, Bill – incorrect salutation – Yours faithfully, Bill Smith

b).
3 – 15 x

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 13/ page 60

A). Key words to be underlined: you have a weekend job; shop; manager; make the shop more profitable; a report making suggestions
1. a report making suggestions
2. the manager of the shop where I work, formal style
3. To: Mr. Johnson
    From: Jane Smith
    Subject: Increasing Profitability
   Date: 1st September 20…
4. Introduction, Advertising, Merchandising, Special Offers, Conclusion
5. my suggestions and the expected results.
6. Firstly, Secondly, As a result, One suggestion would be to, Another suggestions is to, This would mean that, I believe, To sum up
7. To sum up, I believe that if you act on some of the suggestions above, we will attract more customers to the shop. As a result sales will increase and consequently so will profits.


b).
1. a letter of application
2. the manager or personnel officer at James & Mills Co, formal style
3. Dear Sir/ Madam,
     I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Daily News on 18th January for the part-time position in your Accounts Department for which I would like to be considered.
4. no
5. what I am currently doing, my qualifications (and experience) and personal qualities
6. In addition, Also, Finally, I feel
7. I hope you will consider my application. I look forward to hearing from you in due course.
Yours faithfully,
Rachel Brown

Upstream –Upper Intermediate
ex 14/ page 60

A).
To: Mr. Johnson
From: Jane Smith
Subject: Increasing Profitability
Date: 1st September 20…

Introduction
The purpose of this report is to make suggestions regarding ways of increasing the profitability of Elle Clothing.
Advertising
Firstly, one suggestion would be to start an advertising campaign. By putting an advertisement in the local newspaper or on the local radio we could attract more customers to the shop and so increase sales.
Merchandising
Secondly, I think it would be helpful to change the displays within the shop. In this way we could present the merchandise in a way which is more appealing to customers and attract more passing trade.
Special Offers
Finally, we could introduce a number of special offers such as discounts for students or ‘buy one get one free’ promotions. By doing this, we could attract more shoppers to the store.
Conclusion
To sum up, I believe that if we follow some of the suggestions presented in this report, we will be able to attract more customers and so increase sales and the shop’s profitability.

b).
Dear Sir/ Madam,
I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Daily News on 18th January for the part-time position in your Accounts Department for which I would like to be considered.
I am a seventeen-year-old student currently studying for my ‘A’ levels at Lofton College. I plan to follow a career in Accounting and so this would be a perfect opportunity for me to gain some valuable experience.
I have some previous experience of office work gained while working as an Office Assistant for Blackwells Solicitors last summer. My duties included filing, answering the telephone and some typing.
I believe I am a hardworking and sensible person. I am also honest and reliable and can be trusted to act responsibly and maturely.
I hope you will consider my application. I look forward to hearing from you in due course.
Your faithfully,
Rachel Brown


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