miercuri, 13 noiembrie 2013

UPSTREAM - INTERMEDIATE - UNIT 4


Rezolvarea exercitiilor de la UNIT 4 din manualul de limba engleza pentru clasa VIII intitulat UPSTREAM INTERMEDIATE – Student’s Book, Editura Express Publishing, Autori Virginia Evans si Jenny Dooley, Editia 2002

UNIT 4: Earth is Dearer than Gold

Lead-in

Page 52

Exercise 1 a

1.     heavy traffic, busy roads, traffic pollution
2.   crowded cities, smog, overpopulation, air pollution
3.   water shortage, poverty, Third World, developing countries
4.   trees, deforestation, rain forest, loggers
5.    factories, air pollution, industrial waste, smoke, filters, greenhouse gases

The title suggests that the earth is very precious and we should take good care of it. We should not destroy it in the ways shown in the pictures.


Exercise 1 b

Problems:
1.     heavy traffic, air pollution
2.   overpopulated cities, smog
3.   water shortage, poverty
4.   deforestation
5.    air pollution, industrial waste

There is more and more smog in our cities.
There is less and less water available.
There are more and more people living in poverty.
There are more and more trees being cut down.
There are more and more greenhouse gases being produced by factories.
There is more and more industrial waste being produced by factories.

Exercise 2 a

Renewable energy sources: water, wind, sun
Non-renewable energy sources: coal, gas, oil, wood

Exercise 2 b

S
H
H
S
W
S
S
W

·       We can use hydropower to create electricity for whole cities/ to power grain and sawmills/ to pump water.
·       We can use solar power to heat water/ to heat and cool factories/ to power batteries.
·       We can use wind power to run homes and communities.

Reading

Page 53

Exercise 3 a

In the picture: wind farm, wind turbines, slim towers, rotor blades

Exercise 3 b

1.     B
2.   F
3.   D
4.   H
5.    C
6.   A

1.     reference words: ‘greenhouse gases’, ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ in the next sentence which refer to ‘these methods’
2.   reference word: ‘what’ in the previous sentence
3.   reference words: ‘many years’, ‘in countries like Holland and Denmark’ in the previous sentence
4.   reference word: ‘pole’ in the previous sentence
5.    reference word: ‘sea’ in the previous sentence and ‘offshore wind farms’ in the next sentence
6.   reference word: ‘this number’ in the next sentence

Exercise 3 c

run out: finished
emit: produce
contribute to: add to
entire: whole
damaging: harming
coastline: shoreline
shut down: turn off
take up: use
significant: important


Exercise 4

Advantages to be underlined: alternative source of energy, practical, cheap to set up and maintain, highly productive and above all kind to our planet, reliable form of energy, generate as much power as fossil fuels and nuclear energy, but have none of the drawbacks, wind turbines make hardly any noise and they are not unpleasant to look at, they are often located on unoccupied sites or in areas that can also be used for farming, building wind farms at sea is also possible, a single wind turbine can produce enough electricity to power 375 homes, wind power offers a solution to all our energy problems by being a renewable, clean and safe source of energy and it is easy to live and work with.
Other advantages: doesn’t use fossil fuels or deplete our energy resources

Vocabulary Practice

Page  54

Exercise 5

40,000
12,760
70%
8,848
400
The Earth’s circumference is 40,000km and its diameter is 12,760km. Seventy percent of the Earth’s surface area is covered by oceans. The highest point on the Earth is Mount Everest at 8,848m and the lowest point is the Dead Sea at 400m below sea level.

Exercise 6 a

Overpopulation  E
Lack of resources C
Global warming B
Deforestation D
Endangered species A

Exercise 6 b

I think the most worrying problem is water shortage. I also think that every individual should do as much as they can to help solve these problems together with the governments and ruling bodies of the world.

Exercise 7 a

Problems
Effects
Solutions
A Global warming
B Pollution
C Hunting/Overfishing
D Deforestation
3
4
2
1
d
c
a
b

A: What is the effect of pollution?
B: Well, pollution causes very poor air quality in cities. Rivers and lakes are full of industrial waste. We need to do something before it’s too late.
A: What can we do?
B: We could reduce the amount of gases emitted from factories. We could also use public transport instead of cars.

A: What is the effect of hunting and overfishing?
B: Hunting and overfishing cause may animals and fish to be wiped out. We need to do something before it’s too late.
A: What can we do?
B: We could have stricter laws and harsher punishments for illegal hunting and fishing.

A: What is the effect of deforestation?
B: Deforestation causes the destruction of the rainforest. We need to do something before it’s too late.
A: What can we do?
B: We could encourage countries to control the number of trees that are cut out.

Exercise 7 b

Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface. The burning of fossil fuels such as oil and gas produce greenhouse gases, which trap the heat from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere. This causes global warming. We can solve the problem of global warming by decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted. We can do this by reducing gases emitted from factories and encouraging people to use public transport more.

Exercise 8

rubbish – dump
gas – mask
acid – rain
greenhouse – effect
ozone – layer
urban – sprawl
cycle - path



Page 55

Exercise 10 a

To use less petrol for transportation, we can use public transportation.
To use less electricity inside our houses, we can switch off the lights when we leave a room.
To use less electricity inside our houses, we can use fluorescent light bulbs.
To use less coal, gas, petrol and electricity to heat our homes, we can wear warmer clothes in the winter.
To use less coal, gas, petrol and electricity to heat our homes, we can insulate our houses.

a – 3, 6
b – 1, 5
c – 2, 4

Exercise 10 b

To use less petrol for transportation, we can avoid using a car or motorcycle to cover short distances.
To use less petrol for transportation, we can drive more slowly.
To use less electricity, we can use a pressure cooker when we cook.
To use less electricity, we shouldn’t open the fridge door more than we need to.
To use less coal, gas, petrol and electricity to heat our homes, we can close doors and windows tightly to keep the heat inside.
To use less coal, gas, petrol and electricity to heat our homes, we can use alternative energy sources such as solar energy.


Exercise 11

A: … make sure that we turn off the tap tightly when we finish using it.
B: That’s a good idea.

A: What can we do to create less litter?
B: It would be a good idea to recycle our rubbish.
A: That’s true. We could also buy products that we can reuse.
B: That’s a good idea.

A: What can we do to reduce air pollution?
B: If we used our cars less, then there would be less pollution.
A: That’s true. Another good idea would be to fine factories that produce too much smoke.
B: That’s a good idea.

Exercise 12

Always take short showers.
Always turn off the tap tightly after using it.
Never let the water run while you are brushing your teeth.
Always reuse water where possible to water plants or for cleaning.
Never use running water to wash your car. use a bucket of water instead.


Grammar in use

Page 56

Exercise 13

1.     taller
2.   easier
3.   more expensive
4.   faster, faster
5.    more crowded
6.   richer, happier
7.    biggest
8.   busiest
9.   most beautiful
10.    more capable

MORE is used before some two-syllable adjectives and adverbs and all adjectives and adverbs with more than two syllables to form the comparative degree.
MOST is used before some two-syllable adjectives and adverbs and all adjectives and adverbs with more than two syllables to form the superlative degree.

Exercise 14

A bicycle is not very noisy. A car is noisier than a bicycle. A train is the noisiest of all. A car is quite noisy. A train is very noisy.
A car is not very clean. A train is cleaner than a car. a bicycle is the cleanest of all. A train is quite clean. A bicycle is very clean.
A bicycle is not very expensive. A train is more expensive than a bicycle. A car is the most expensive of all. A train is quite expensive. A car is very expensive.

Exercise 15

1.     happier
2.   the biggest
3.   harder, harder
4.   the best
5.    the most beautiful
6.   healthier
7.    more interesting
8.   the most difficult
9.   earlier, sooner
10.    better

Exercise 16

A: People used to work longer hours.
B: That’s right. Most people nowadays work quite short hours.
A: Dwellings used to be quite inconvenient in the past.
B: Yes, but now they are very convenient.
A: In the past, transportation was much slower.
B: You’re right. These days transportation is very fast.
A: Life used to be quite dangerous in the past.
B: I agree. Nowadays it’s much safer.

Exercise 17

A: … is the largest?
B: The elephant. Which animal is the tallest of all?
A: I think it’s the elephant. Which animal is the smallest of all?
B: The mouse. Which animal is the fastest?
A: I suppose it’s the tiger. Which animal is the slowest?
B: I think it’s the centipede. Which animal is the loudest of all?
A: It’s the elephant. Which animal is the most poisonous of all?
B: The cobra, of course!

Exercise 18

1.     enough
2.   too
3.   enough
4.   too
5.    too
6.   enough
7.    too
8.   enough

Page 57

Exercise 19

I can’t stand people throwing rubbish in the streets. (-ing form)
We can all help save endangered species. (infinitive without to)
I’d like to join an environmental group. (to-infinitive)

Exercise 20 a

1.     –ing form
2.   – ing form
3.   to –inf
4.   –ing form
5.    inf without to
6.   –ing form

2. He apologised for being late.
3. I would love to go to the cinema tonight.
4. She loves going to the zoo.
5. You should try to come to the meeting.
6. I’m looking forward to going to the beach this weekend.

Exercise 21

1.     swimming
2.   be
3.   to arrive
4.   to visit
5.    meeting
6.   working
7.    to tell
8.   speaking
9.   do
10.    changing

1.     go + -ing form (for activities)
2.   modal verb + inf without to
3.   for + noun/pronoun + to – inf
4.   would love + to-inf
5.    look forward to + -ing form
6.   verb + preposition + -ing form
7.    would like + to-inf
8.   preposition + -ing form
9.   modal verb + infinitive without to
10.                      verb + preposition + -ing form

Exercise 22

1.     to put
2.   visiting
3.   thinking
4.   to buy
5.    to get
6.   talking
7.    to catch
8.   writing

2. forget = not recall
3. stop = finish, give up
4. stop = stop briefly in order to do sth else
5. remember = not forget
6. remember = recall
7. want = intend
8. try = do sth as an experiment

Exercise 23

1.     attending the lecture
2.   to clean up his room
3.   playing football
4.   go for a stroll
5.    find information quickly on the Internet
6.   waiting in queues
7.    liking her
8.   playing computer games
9.   improve your handwriting
10.    visiting Disneyland next summer

Grammar in Use

Page 58

Exercise 24 a

1.     to
2.   of
3.   about
4.   from
5.    of
6.   at

1.     wanting to thank sb for sth
2.   having committed a crime or offence
3.   find out about sth
4.   receive a letter or phone call from sb
5.    know about sth but not in a lot of detail
6.   very bad at sth

Exercise 24 b

1.     of
2.   of
3.   in
4.   to
5.    from
6.   of
7.    with
8.   for

Exercise 25

1.     fall back on
2.   get away with
3.   get on with
4.   get over
5.    fell for
6.   fell through
7.    get through

Exercise 26

1.     distinctive
2.   permanently
3.   surprisingly
4.   variety
5.    survival
6.   colourful
7.    protection
8.   impossible
9.   pollution
10.    considerable

Exercise 27

1.     has difficulty (in) managing
2.   be no interest in joining
3.   without saying goodbye
4.   has succeeded in giving up
5.    is old enough to

1.     have difficulty (in) + -ing form
2.   there is interest in + -ing form
3.   without + -ing form
4.   succeed in + -ing form
5.    be + adj + enough + to-inf
6.   not + adj + enough for sb
7.    not + as/so … as

Page 59

Exercise 28

1.     to
2.   many
3.   fact
4.   than
5.    major/main
6.   which
7.    come/derive
8.   are
9.   such
10.    for
11.have
12.     more
13.     of
14.     There
15.     well

1.     come to mind
2.   not many + noun
3.   in fact
4.   more … than
5.    one of the major/ main
6.   which – relative pronoun to begin a relative clause
7.    come/ derive from
8.   are collected from
9.   such as
10.    valued for sth
11.have become + adj
12.     more and more
13.     aware of
14.      There is/ are
15.     as well as

Exercise 29

1.     admire
2.   busy and active
3.   not move
4.   be kind
5.    criticize
6.   become disappointed
7.    remain calm

Exercise 30

1.     butterflies
2.   birds
3.   bull
4.   crocodile
5.    lion

1.     be very nervous or excited
2.   be able to achieve two things you want rather than one
3.   do sth that you feel you have to do even though it is difficult or unpleasant
4.   not genuine or sincere tears
5.    the largest part of sth

Other idioms:
-        bet on the wrong horse: choose unwisely
-        eat like a horse: eat a lot
-        hold one’s horses: wait, be patient
-        throw sth to the wolves: send sb into danger without protection

Page 60

Exercise 31

S
B
B
J
J
S
J
B

Exercise 32 a

A: The first picture shows deforestation. There is a man, probably a lumberjack, cutting down a tree with a chainsaw.
B: Yes, and the tree looks very old, doesn’t it?
A: You’re right. Then, in the background I can see other trees that have already been cut down. etc.

Exercise 32 b


Exercise 33

1.     animal rights
2.   (people’s) awareness
3.   (natural) habitats
4.   souvenirs
5.    environment
6.   hunt and kill

Exercise 34 a



Exercise 34 b

More and more animals are threatened with extinction. People hunt them for their fur or meat and their natural habitats are disappearing little by little. We should all do something to save them. One thing we can do is …

Exercise 35

Speaker 1 F
Speaker 2 B
Speaker 3 D
Speaker 4 C
Speaker 5 A

Speaker 1 – student – making a speech or a report at the front of the classroom
Speaker 2 – reporter – outside the city zoo during a news/ current affairs broadcast
Speaker 3 – someone speaking in an advertisement – on the TV or radio
Speaker 4 – reporter – at the shop called “Scrap for play” during a report or a current affairs broadcast
Speaker 5 – someone speaking in an advertisement – on the TV or radio

Page 61

Exercise 36

A: We can also take bottles and cans to the recycling bin.
B: That’s right. They can be thoroughly cleaned and used again, or they can be used to make new bottles.
A: Don’t forget aluminium cans.
B: Of course. Aluminium can be used again and again to make cans and other aluminium products.  etc.

Exercise 37 a

There is too much traffic.

Exercise 37 b

1.     I can’t believe
2.   I know
3.   Have you thought about
4.   That’s a great idea
5.    Let’s

Exercise 37 c



Exercise 38 a

They must be neighbours.

Exercise 38 b

1.     b
2.   c
3.   a

Exercise 38 c



Exercise 39 a

The second sentence in each exchange.

Exercise 39 b

1.     Let me see; I don’t think so
2.   Well; I don’t know
3.   I’m not sure about it

Exercise 39 c



Exercise 40

1.     most
2.   this
3.   cleanest
4.   everyone
5.    rare

Page 62

Exercise 41 a

I think the poem is about the small plants and animals that live all around us. Perhaps the poem is about the place where these small animals live.

Exercise 41 b

Robert Louis Stevenson probably wrote about something that he imagined or dreamed about when he was alone in his room. Perhaps it is something that he saw when he visited the Royal Botanic Garden. Perhaps he saw the many small animals and then he imagined the land that they lived in.

Exercise 42 a



Exercise 42 b

It makes me feel pleased that I have experienced such a place. I also feel relaxed following the description of the place as everything there is calm and quiet.

Exercise 43 a

It is a narrative because it tells a story.

Exercise 43 b

No, it is not consistent throughout the first verse. In the last four lines, the words rhyme with those of every alternate line.

Exercise 43 c

When at home alone I sit
And am very tired of it.

Exercise 43 d

the clover-tops are trees
the rain-pools are the seas
the leaves, like tiny ships
the daisy tree

And the ants go marching by,
Carrying parcels with their feet

Exercise 44

As I was lying in my bed
I looked around – all was red
I put the pillow under my head.
Then a soft voice inside me said,
“I’m hungry, I haven’t been fed.”

Page 64

Exercise 45

Local newspaper; readers; articles; How; make our planet; safer place; animals

1.     The readers of the local newspaper.
2.   Habitats: When we destroy the environment, we also destroy the animals’ natural habitats.
Who hunts them: Poachers and hunters
Why: for their fur, skin, teeth, tusks and bones
Effects of environmental problems: Deforestation destroys animals’ natural habitats. As we dump more and more industrial waste into our oceans, we are destroying many species of marine life.
3.   First, we should take measures to protect our wildlife, such as making the destruction of animals’ habitats illegal. Also, governments should educate people about the problems faced by our planet. Finally, we should create more parks and conservation areas.

Exercise 46 a

endangered species, panda, environment, habitat, nature, laws, nature reserves, wildlife parks, park rangers, etc.

Exercise 46 b

A 3     B 5    C 1    D 2    E 4

Page 65

Exercise 47

A: beginning – addressed the reader directly
B: ending – asks a rhetorical question
C: ending/ beginning – uses a quotation

Exercise 48

1.     d
2.   a
3.   b
4.   c

It would be a good idea if we insulated our houses and used energy efficient products. This way, we would use less fuel to heat and cool our houses.
The situation could be improved if we created more nature reserves and wilderness areas. This way, we would help to protect the habitats of the endangered species.
Another useful suggestion would be stop using aerosols. This way, we would prevent damage to the ozone layer.

Exercise 49

1.     Firstly, fossil fuels are non-renewable resources. Also, burning fossil fuels to generate power causes environmental problems such as acid rain and global warning.
2.   In fact, there are said to be less than 5,000 blue whales and 9,000 bowhead whales worldwide. If we don’t act fast, there will soon be none left.

Exercise 50

        Write an article; school magazine; How can we reduce air pollution levels in our cities

Causes of air pollution
Suggestions
Traffic
Introduce park and ride schemes
Aeroplanes
Move the airport away from the city
Electricity generators
Educate people about cutting down on electricity use
Factory smoke
Build an industrial park
Burning rubbish
Introduce recycling scheme
Heating and cooling homes and offices
Use alternative fuel sources

Exercise 51 a
   
Cause
Suggested Solution
Result
too much traffic in the city centre
introduce park and ride schemes
fewer cars in the city centre
factories polluting the air
create industrial park
less smoke over the city
too much rubbish being burned
introduce a recycling scheme
less rubbish being burned

Exercise 51 b
   


Exercise 52

-        Of all the creatures of our planet, man is the most dangerous one, as he has done and continues to do harm not only to the planet but to his fellow man as well.
-        We have to protect our planet as far as possible, since this is the place where our descendants are going to live and continue life on Earth.


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